What is Sedimentation in Effluent Treatment Sewage Treatment Plants?

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What is Sedimentation?

Sedimentation is physical operation and separates solid particles with a density

higher than that of the surrounding liquid. In a tank in which the water flow

velocity is very low, the particles tend to go to the bottom under the influence of

gravity. As a result, the supernatant liquid becomes clarified, while the particles

at the bottom form a sludge layer, and are then subsequently removed with the

sludge. Sedimentation is a unit operation of high importance in wastewater

treatment systems.

Main applications of sedimentation in wastewater treatment are:

1. Preliminary treatment.

Grit removal (sedimentation of inorganic particles of large dimensions)

By Grit chamber

2. Primary treatment.

Primary sedimentation (sedimentation of suspended solids from the raw sewage)

By Conventional primary clarifiers, with frequent sludge removal or

By Septic tanks

3. Secondary treatment.

Secondary sedimentation (removal of mainly biological solids)

By Final sedimentation tanks in activated sludge systems

By Final sedimentation tanks in trickling filter systems

By Sedimentation compartments in anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

By Sedimentation ponds, after complete-mix aerated lagoons

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